WHAT IS IT LIKE TO BE “THE SAME”?

 
 
 
 
 

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“multiplicity from identity” of evolving living beings as well as their biochemical arrangements.Arturo Tozzi
Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203, USA
1155 Union Circle, #311427
Denton, TX 76203-5017 USA
tozziarturo@libero.it
James F Peters
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba
75A Chancellor’s Circle Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6 CANADA and
Department of Mathematics, Adıyaman University, 02040 Adıyaman, Turkey
James.Peters3@umanitoba.ca
Below is the unedited draft of the article that has been accepted for publication ©
Progress in Biophysics & Molecular Biology, 2017.
A unifying principle underlies the organization of physical and biological systems. It relates to a wellknown
topological theorem which succinctly states that an activity on a planar circumference projects
to two activities with “matching description” into a sphere. Here we ask: what does “matching
description” mean? Has it something to do with “identity”? Going through different formulations of
the principle of identity, we describe diverse possible meanings of the term “matching description”.
We demonstrate that the concepts of “sameness”, “equality”, “belonging together” stand for
intertwined levels with mutual interactions. By showing that “matching” description is a very general
and malleable concept, we provide a novel testable approach to “identity” that yields helpful insights
into physical and biological matters. Indeed, we illustrate how a novel mathematical approach derived
from the Borsuk-Ulam theorem, termed bio-BUT, might explain the astonishing biological
“multiplicity from identity” of evolving living beings as well as their biochemical arrangements.