UNKNOWN CAUSE/EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS IN TERMS OF ANTIPODAL FEATURES ON KNESER GRAPHS

Arturo Tozzi

Pyhysics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203, USA
1155 Union Circle, #311427 Denton, TX 76203-5017 USA
tozziarturo@libero.it
 
The assessment of hidden causal relationships, e.g., adverse drug reactions in pharmacovigilance, is
currently based on rather qualitative parameters. In order to find more quantifiable parameters able
to establish the validity of the alleged correlations between drug intake and onset of symptoms, we
introduce the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT), which states that a single point on a circumference
projects to two points on a sphere. The BUT stands for a general principle that describes issues
from neuroscience, theoretical physics, nanomaterials, computational topology, chaotic systems,
group theory, cosmology. Here we introduce a novel BUT variant, termed operational-BUT, that
evaluates causal relationships. Further, we demonstrate that the BUT is correlated with graph
theory and in particular with the so-called Kneser graphs: this means that the combinatory features
of observables, such as the bodily responses to drug intake, can be described in terms of dynamical
mappings and paths taking place on well-established abstract structures. Therefore, physical and
biological dynamical systems (including alleged causes and their unknown effects) make
predictable moves into peculiar phase spaces, giving rise to constrained trajectories that can be quantified.  

 

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quantified.hysics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203, USA
1155 Union Circle, #311427 Denton, TX 76203-5017 USA
tozziarturo@libero.it
The assessment of hidden causal relationships, e.g., adverse drug reactions in pharmacovigilance, is
currently based on rather qualitative parameters. In order to find more quantifiable parameters able
to establish the validity of the alleged correlations between drug intake and onset of symptoms, we
introduce the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT), which states that a single point on a circumference
projects to two points on a sphere. The BUT stands for a general principle that describes issues
from neuroscience, theoretical physics, nanomaterials, computational topology, chaotic systems,
group theory, cosmology. Here we introduce a novel BUT variant, termed operational-BUT, that
evaluates causal relationships. Further, we demonstrate that the BUT is correlated with graph
theory and in particular with the so-called Kneser graphs: this means that the combinatory features
of observables, such as the bodily responses to drug intake, can be described in terms of dynamical
mappings and paths taking place on well-established abstract structures. Therefore, physical and
biological dynamical systems (including alleged causes and their unknown effects) make
predictable moves into peculiar phase spaces, giving rise to constrained trajectories that can be
quantified.