# KILLING THE FATHERS: A BIOLOGY-FRAMED SKEPTICISM

*Arturo Tozzi (corresponding Author),*

*Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas*

*1155 Union Circle, #311427 Denton, TX 76203-5017 USA*

*tozziarturo@libero.it*

*James F. Peters*

*Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba*

*75A Chancellor’s Circle Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6 CANADA and*

*Department of Mathematics, Adıyaman University, 02040 Adıyaman, Turkey*

*James.Peters3@umanitoba.ca*

**Starting from the tenets of human imagination, i.e., the concepts of lines, points and infinity, we provide a biological**

**demonstration that the skeptical claim “human beings cannot attain knowledge of the world” holds true. We show**

**that the Euclidean account of the point as “that of which there is no part” is just a conceptual device, untenable in our**

**physical/biological realm: terms like “lines, surfaces and volumes” label non-existent, arbitrary properties. We also**

**elucidate the psychological and neuroscientific features hardwired in our brain that lead us humans to think to points**

**and lines as truly occurring in our environment. Therefore, our current scientific descriptions of objects’ shapes,**

**graphs and biological trajectories in phase spaces need to be revisited, leading to a proper portrayal of the real world’s**

**events. In order to provide also a positive account, we view miniscule bounded physical surface regions as the basic**

**objects in a biological context in a traversal of spacetime instead of the usual Euclidean points. Our account makes it**

**possible to erase a painstaking problem that causes many theories to break down and/or being incapable of describing**

**extreme events: the unwanted occurrence of infinite values in equations, such as singularity in the description of black**

**holes. We propose a novel approach, based on point-free geometrical standpoints, that banishes infinitesimals and**

**leads to a tenable physical/biological geometry. We conclude that points, lines, volumes and infinity do not describe the world, rather they are fictions introduced by ancient surveyors of land surfaces.**

# Tozzi, A.; Peters, J.F.. Killing the Fathers: A Biology-Framed Skepticism. *Preprints* **2018**, 2018090027 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201809.0027.v1).

THthe world, rather they are fictions introduced by ancient surveyors of land surfaces.Arturo Tozzi (corresponding Author),

Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas

1155 Union Circle, #311427 Denton, TX 76203-5017 USA

tozziarturo@libero.it

James F. Peters

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba

75A Chancellor’s Circle Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6 CANADA and

Department of Mathematics, Adıyaman University, 02040 Adıyaman, Turkey

James.Peters3@umanitoba.ca

Starting from the tenets of human imagination, i.e., the concepts of lines, points and infinity, we provide a biological

demonstration that the skeptical claim “human beings cannot attain knowledge of the world” holds true. We show

that the Euclidean account of the point as “that of which there is no part” is just a conceptual device, untenable in our

physical/biological realm: terms like “lines, surfaces and volumes” label non-existent, arbitrary properties. We also

elucidate the psychological and neuroscientific features hardwired in our brain that lead us humans to think to points

and lines as truly occurring in our environment. Therefore, our current scientific descriptions of objects’ shapes,

graphs and biological trajectories in phase spaces need to be revisited, leading to a proper portrayal of the real world’s

events. In order to provide also a positive account, we view miniscule bounded physical surface regions as the basic

objects in a biological context in a traversal of spacetime instead of the usual Euclidean points. Our account makes it

possible to erase a painstaking problem that causes many theories to break down and/or being incapable of describing

extreme events: the unwanted occurrence of infinite values in equations, such as singularity in the description of black

holes. We propose a novel approach, based on point-free geometrical standpoints, that banishes infinitesimals and

leads to a tenable physical/biological geometry. We conclude that points, lines, volumes and infinity do not describe

the world, rather they are fictions introduced by ancient surveyors of land surfaces.