Cosmic Random Walks Underlying an Infinite-Genus Universe

Abstract

The Universe, rather than being homogeneous, displays an almost infinite topological genus, because it is punctured with a countless number of gravitational vortexes, i.e., black holes.  Starting from this view, we aim to show that the occurrence of black holes is constrained by geometric random walks taking place during cosmic inflationary expansion.  At first, we introduce a visual model, based on the Pascal’s triangle and linear and nonlinear arithmetic octahedrons, which describes three-dimensional cosmic random walks.  In case of nonlinear 3D paths, trajectories in an expanding Universe can be depicted as the operation of filling the numbers of the octahedrons in the form of “islands of numbers”: this leads to separate cosmic structures (standing for matter/energy), spaced out by empty areas (constituted by black holes and dark matter).  These procedures allow us to describe the topology of an universe of infinite genus, to assess black hole formation in terms of infinite Betti numbers, to highlight how non-linear random walks might provoke gravitational effects also in absence of mass/energy, and to propose a novel interpretation of Beckenstein-Hawking entropy: it is proportional to the surface, rather than the volume, of a black hole, because the latter does not contain information.