Cellular Gauge Symmetry and the Li Organization Principle

 

Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 2017

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2017.06.004

 

Arturo Tozzi

Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas

1155 Union Circle, #311427

Denton, TX 76203-5017, USA, and

Computational Intelligence Laboratory, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada

Winnipeg R3T 5V6 Manitoba

tozziarturo@libero.it

 

James F. Peters

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba

75A Chancellor’s Circle, Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6, Canada and

Department of Mathematics, Adıyaman University, 02040 Adıyaman, Turkey,

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Adıyaman University

02040 Adıyaman, Turkey and Computational Intelligence Laboratory, University of

Manitoba, WPG, MB, R3T 5V6, Canada

james.peters3@umanitoba.ca

 

Jorge Navarro

Grupo de Bioinformación / Bioinformation Group

Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud (IACS)

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IISA)

Edificio CIBA. Avda. San Juan Bosco, 13, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain

jnavarro.iacs@aragon.es

 

Wu Kun

International Center for Philosophy of Information

School of Humanities and Social Sciences

Xi’an Jiaotong University

Xi’an (China)

wukun@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

 

Bi-Lin*

International Center for Philosophy of Information

School of Humanities and Social Sciences

Xi’an Jiaotong University

Xi’an (China)

bilin1001@qq.com

 

Pedro C. Marijuán*

Grupo de Bioinformación / Bioinformation Group

Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud (IACS)

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS)

Edificio CIBA. Avda. San Juan Bosco, 13, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain

pcmarijuan.iacs@aragon.es

 

(* Both authors correspond)

 

Based on novel topological considerations, we postulate a gauge symmetry for living cells and proceed to interpret it from a consistent Eastern perspective: the li organization principle. Gauge theories had a tremendous impact in particle physics and have been recently proposed in order to assess nervous activity too. Herein, taking into account novel claims from topology, the mathematical branch that allows the investigation of the most general systems activity, we aim to sketch a gauge theory addressed to the fundamentals of cellular organization. In our framework, the reference system is the living cell, equipped with general symmetries and energetic constraints standing for the intertwined biochemical, metabolic and signaling pathways that allow the global homeostasis of the system. Abstractly, these functional movements would follow donut-like trajectories. Environmental stimuli stand for forces able to locally break the symmetry of metabolic and signaling pathways, while the species-specific DNA is the gauge field that restores the global homeostasis after external perturbations. We show how the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT), which states that a single point on a circumference maps two points on a sphere, allows an inquiry on the evolution from inorganic to organic structures as well as the comparison between prokaryotic and eukaryotic metabolisms and modes of organization. Furthermore, using recently developed BUT variants, we operationalize a methodology for the description of cellular activity in terms of topology/gauge fields and discuss about the experimental implications and feasible applications. We converge on the strategic role that second messengers have played regarding the emergence of such a unitary gauge field for the cell, and the subsequent evolutionary implications for multicellulars. A new avenue for a deeper investigation of biological complexity looms. Philosophically, along this overall exploration of cellular dynamics and biological complexity, we might be reminded of the duality between two essential concepts proposed by the great Chinese synthesizer Zhu Xi (in the XIII Century). His explanatory scheme epitomizes a feasible philosophical interpretation of the present proposal: on the one side, the li organization principle, which may be taken as equivalent to the dynamic interplay between symmetry and information; and on the other side, the qi principle, which can be interpreted as the energy participating in the process, and which always appears as interlinked with the former. In contemporary terms, it would mean the required interconnection between information and energy, and at the same time it would be pointing at essential interpretive principles of information philosophy.  

 

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